Thursday, August 20, 2015

As New England as Apple.......Just Apples!




Apples have been more closely associated with New England than any other fruit and any other state, second only to pumpkin. Our Yankee heritage was literally raised on everything apple. From cider(hard and "soft")to sauce to pies, apples(in the form of applesauce) were even used in place of fat in cakes much of the time, as we have just "rediscovered".

Two of the favorites among the Puritans and colonists in New England was "apple sass" and dried apple pie. "Apple Sass" was a dish that was exactly the same as making apple butter(see below) but was stopped in the middle stages. It was always made in the fall and kept in a barrel right outside the front door so that any child, when told to do so, would simply open the door and scrape out a chunk of frozen "apple sass", bring it in and everyone would enjoy it once thawed.

Dried apples were made into pies when it was off season. It was dried as pumpkin, peeled and thinly sliced before stringing on a long twine to hang above the fireplace mantel to dry. When a pie was ready to make, they would be taken down, boiled in water to hydrate and made into pie, cobbler, crisp, Betty or a wide range of goodies.

There have been many myths about when apples were first brought to America and by whom. Many still believe that it was Johnny Appleseed or some botanist in New York who first planted cultivated apple trees. Neither, of course, is true. Although many of you may find this a little boring, being a book-a-holic and a lifelong lover of anything New England, I love to spread the word about anything Yankee, and apples just happens to be part of who we are.

Crabapples have been part of the original(Native)Americans diet long before we set foot on these shores. Sure, we have all tasted them, but most of us have spit it out just as fast. Sour, bland and even astringent can be easily attributed to many species of these small apples.

In order to overcome this, the Indians used to throw them in the fire, as is, and let them roast until fairly soft. Taking them out to cool and eating them as is was truly a sweet treat in the days of no sugar. Over time, even before the landing of any European, apples were stewed with fish and game, along with pumpkins and edible greens found growing abundantly everywhere.

This is not to say that sweeter, larger wild apple varieties didn't grow on these shores before the arrival of the English. Although all historians concur that sweet apples were not to be found, this is untrue. See the story of the Baldwin apple below. If the Baldwin apple was found, surely there had to have been at least on other type of sweet apple growing in the wilderness of the East coast.

It is averred to by historians over and over again that Europeans brought apple seeds and seedlings to Virginia first before these larger, sweeter apples made their way to New England. Let me set the record straight.
Will Blackstone

Although we may give John Chapman(Johnny Appleseed)credit for spreading apple seeds in the central Atlantic coast and Illinois at the beginning of the 1800s, he is almost 2 centuries later than the original Johnny Appleseed, a man named William Blackstone.

William arrived in late 1622, when the flood of Europeans was just starting to swell, and when he set food on this new land, he had crossed the Atlantic with a few pouches of apple pips(seeds). Starting on Beacon Hill in Boston, he traveled south to Rhode Island, burying these seeds along the way and once he reached Rhode Island, he began planting orchards there as well.
The first type of apple planted by William? The Roxbury Russet!

Roxbury Russet
The main reason for him(as well; as all other planters)to start growing apples? For cider.It is amusing as to how William came across all these apple seeds. He simply started by saving all the apple cores from friends and family back in England, and even kept all the apple cores from his fellow ship mates on the way here.

Now we have a man planting apple seeds in New England in 1622, but we also have record of "winter banana" or "melt-in-your-mouth" orchards(the general term for apples during this
time) being planted in Virginia at the same time.                                                                                                                     

In December, 1622, the Council of the Virginia Company in England addressing the Governor of Virgina, sent this communication on board either the Discovery, Bona Nova or the Hopewell.

"Wee haue by this Shipp and the Discouerie sent you diurs [divers] sortes of seedes, and fruit trees, as also Pidgeons, Connies, Peacockes Maistiues [Mastiffs], and Beehives, as you shall by the invoice pceiue [perceive]; the preservation & encrease whereof we respond vnto you…"

The main reason, at the time, to transport beehives to this new land was for the growth of apple trees.

Many historians will relate that even though apple seeds and saplings were brought to this new country, we didn't start growing apple trees for a number of years because there were no "white mans flies" indigenous to North America. "White man's flies" were what the Indians(according to Thomas Jefferson) called honey bees. We know that to be wrong now.

The immigrants DID bring honey bees with them, for they knew that without honey bees, there would be no apples, hence no cider. And a Yankee with no cider is like a dog with no bark.

The Native Americans were not without their own bee population however. For centuries, the Indians collected honey from nests by using smoke to sedate the swarms in order to reach in and pull out this sweet nectar

There is record after record of "skeps" and "gums" being part of the store on board almost all ocean-born ships on their way to New England,. Skeps were simply woven, straw baskets with a dome lid(resembling a hive actually) that housed honeybees.

The same with "gums". This was a more sturdy bee 'keeper' that was a 3 foot length of tree that was hollowed out almost all the way to one end, resembling a large pail. Plugging the open end once the bees were caught and placed inside, this would safely transport honeybees here to New England.

Another early record of apple seeds or seedlings being brought over here to New England was late 1628, early 1629, when Governor John Endicott requested(on behalf of the Boston Bay Company):

"Vine-planters, wheat, rye, barley, oats, a hogshead of each in the ear: beans, pease, stones of all sorts of fruits, as peaches, plums, filberts, cherries: pear, apple, quince kernels: pomegranates, woad seed, saffron heads, liquorice seed, madder roots, potatoes, hop-roots, hemp seed, flax seed, currant plants, and madder seeds." But no mention of bees, therefore it is only strongly speculated that the colony had their fair share of honeybees ready to pollinate."

By 1640, apple orchards were everywhere throughout the land, and the Natives were beginning to understand the importance of this fruit as well.

By 1650, the swarms of bees had made their way to Connecticut and Pennsylvania, pollinating many apple trees.

Over the years, orchards were slowly becoming a business venture for some. In 1737, Robert Prince established the first apple orchard solely for commercial use in New York. It was so important of a crop that the British even posted armed guards around the perimeter of this nursery to prevent Americans from seizing it.

It wasn't until the first quarter of the 19th century that the Pacific Northwest saw their own apple trees. A Captain Aemilius Simmons was given some apple seeds by a young lady in England to plant in this part of America.


Some lore regarding apples are interesting to note as well. Apple boughs, much like pine boughs during Christmas, were hung above the entryway of homes to bless the family with good luck year round. Women used to cut apples cross-wise and offered one half to their prospective "beau to be", in order to hurry the attraction.
-The Irish tradition of La mas nbbal(the feast of gathering apples) took place on Halloween, which included apple cider which had apples floating on top. People would take an apple out and eat if for good luck. This was the beginning of Bobbing For Apples, commonly seen here in America to this day.



-We all know of the ancient New England rite of wassailing, but in England, wassailing the apple trees was a common practice. The English would toast the most productive of all apple trees growing on their property by reciting the following verses three times, while enjoying hot cider and cakes, ensuring apple prosperity for years to come. This was an annual event well into the 1900s:


"Here’s to thee, old apple tree!"
Whence thou mays’t bud, and whence thou mays’t blow,
Hats full! Caps full! Bushel-bushel-bags full!
And my pockets full, too! Huzza!"

"Wassaile the trees, that they may beare,
You many a Plum and many a Peare,
For more or lesse fruits they will bring,
As you do give them Wassailing
."

 

-Have you even heard of the term upper crust? That, too, is a Yankee original. In Puritan times, when ground flour was not as abundant as decades to follow, crusts for pies was used in a utilitarian fashion. That is, only the bottom crust was made for an apple pie, to prevent sticking and to actually make a pie, rather than a concoction of stewed apples. Anyone lucky enough, or rich enough, to obtain more flour were able to form a top crust, or upper crust, for their pies. 


We all also know that the sole purpose of growing apples in the very beginning colonization of this land was for the cider but it was also a product of choice for bartering for other home staples when the need arose.

By 1796, the famous Amelia Simmons, in the first American cookbook, American Cookery says;

From Amelia's Book

"Apples are still more various, yet rigidly retain their own species, and are highly useful in families, and ought to be more universally cultivated, excepting in the compactest cities. There is not a single family but might set a tree in some otherwise useless spot, which might serve the two fold use of shade and fruit; on which 12 or 14 kinds of fruit trees might easily be engrafted, and essentially preserve the orchard from the intrusions of boys, &c. which is too common in America.

If the boy who thus planted a tree, and guarded and protected it in a useless corner, and carefully engrafted different fruits, was to be indulged free access into orchards, whilst the neglectful boy was prohibited--how many millions of fruit trees would spring into growth--and what a saving to the union. The net saving would in time extinguish the public debt, and enrich our cookery."



During the same decade, Samuel Deane expounded how to preserve apples in his New England Farmer;

"I gather them about noon on the day of the full of the moon which happens in the latter part of September, or beginning of October. Then spread them in a chamber, or garret, where they lie till about the last of November. Then, at a time when the weather is dry, remove them into casks, or boxes, in the cellar, out of the way of the frosts; but I prefer a cool part of the cellar. With this management, I find I can keep them till the last of May, so well that not one in fifty will rot...

"In the Autumn of 1793, I packed apples in the shavings of pine, so that they scarcely touched one another. They kept well till some time in May following; though they were a sort which are mellow for eating in December. Dry sawdust might perhaps answer the end as well. Some barrel them up, and keep them through the Winter in upper rooms, covering them with blankets or mats, to prevent freezing. Dry places are best for them."



Another utilitarian feature of apple cider was the storage. It was easily able to be kept all year round without fear of spoilage.

The Farmers Assistant, 1820:

"Cider may be kept for years in casks, without fermenting, by burying them deeply under ground, or immersing them in spring water; and when taken up the cider will be very fine.


An 1840 political campaign
Some other references from the same book:

"A drink, called cider-royal, is made of the best runing of the cheese, well clarified, with six or eight gallons of French brandy, or good cider brandy, added to a barrel: Let the vessel be filled full, bunged tight, and set in a cool cellar, and in the course of a twelvemonth it will be a fine drink. If good rectified whiskey be used, instead of brandy, it will answer very well.

"A quart of honey, or molasses, and a quart of brandy, or other spirits, added to a barrel of cider, will improve the liquor very much, and will restore that which has become too flat and insipid. To prevent its becoming pricked, or to cure it when it is so, put a little pearl-ashes, or other mild alkali, into the cask. A lump of chalk broken in pieces, and thrown in, is also good. Salt of tartar, when the cider is about to be used, is also recommended.

"To refine cider, and give it a fine amber-color, the following method is much approved of. Take the whites of 6 eggs, with a handful of fine beach sand, washed clean; stir them well together; then boil a quart of molasses down to a candy, and cool it by pouring in cider, and put this, together with the eggs and sand, into a barrel of cider, and mix the whole well together. When thus managed, it will keep for many years. Molasses alone will also refine cider, and give it a higher color; but, to prevent the molasses making it prick, let an equal quantity of brandy be added to it. Skim-milk, with some lime slacked in it, and mixed with it, or with the white of eggs with the shells broken in, is also good for clarifying all liquors, when well mixed with them. A piece of fresh bloody meat, put into the cask, will also refine the liquor and serve tor it to feed on.


A truly American dish is Apple Butter.
It was a full day affair to put up a good amount of this tasty treat in the early days. Good, solid, blemish-free apples(much like the apples needed for cider) were ground by a homemade apple grinder that was powered by horse. This grinder was set on a wooden platform and as the apples were ground, the pulp was sandwiched in dried grass or straw. It was then covered with wooden planks and pressed to extract as much juice as possible. The pulp was given to their domesticated animals while the cider was boiled...and boiled...and boiled...in big copper kettles.

When it was thick, it was placed in another kettle next to it over the fire while more cider was replenished in the large kettle. At the end of the day, when all the cider was boiled down to the consistency of molasses, sometimes even thicker, more apples were peeled, cored and cut up small to add to this thick "sauce".

For the next 8-10 hours, whenever the apples boiled down to thicken this sauce even further, more cut apples were added, constantly stirring over the fire so it would not scorch. When the apple butter was dark brown and too thick to stir anymore, work was done. By this time the apple butter was said to be thick enough to slice and the sugar content allowed this apple butter to keep well over a year in their root cellar.

Here is a recipe from 1839, found in The Kentucky Housewife:

"10 gallons of water
6 gallons of the best molasses
8 bushels of apples
1 pound mixed spice-cloves, allspice, cinnamon and nutmeg

 To ten gallons of water add six gallons of the best molasses, mixing them well together. Put it into a large kettle over a good fire. Let it come to a hard boil, and skim it as long as any scum continues to rise. Take out half the liquid, and put it into a tub

Have ready eight bushels of fine sound apples, pared, cored and quartered. Throw them gradually into the liquid that is still boiling on the fire. Let it continue to boil hard, and as it thickens, add by degrees the other half of the molasses and water, (that which has been put into the tub.). Stir it frequently to prevent its scorching, and to make it of equal consistence throughout. Boil it ten or twelve hours, continuing to stir it

At night take it out of the kettle, and set it in tubs to cool; covering it carefully. Wash out the kettle and wipe it very dry. Next morning boil the apple butter six or eight hours longer; it should boil eighteen homs altogether. Half an hour before you take it finally out, stir in a pound of mixed spice; cloves, allspice, cinnamon, and nutmeg, all finely powdered. When entirely done, put up the apple butter in stone or earthen jars. It will keep a year or more."

Baldwin Apple
 
Another leading apple in New England was the Baldwin. It remained revered by Yankees until the bitter cold winter of 1934, when well over a million trees succumbed to the bitter cold and died. The Baldwin apple was obtainable, but at a huge price. It was during this time that the current favorite among Yankees, the McIntosh, began to gain popularity.

The Baldwin apple was found growing wild near a place called Wood Hill in Williamton,
Col. Loammi Baldwin
Massachusetts by Will Butler, the son of the original settler of that town. It was about 1725 that this tree was discovered right on his own lawn, and there sits a monument to this day commemorating it. Sadly, this tree fell in 1816, due to a gale.

The Baldwin was originally called the Woodpecker, because the tree was filled with holes from woodpeckers. The name then changed to the Butters apple, after a certain Mr. Butters who purchased this farm a generation or two later. Mr. Butters gave one of these apples to Col. Loammi Baldwin, who propagated it and spread this perfect cider apple throughout Massachusetts.

To add insult to injury, the bitterly cold winter of 1934 wiped out many of the apple orchards in New England, including the Baldwin. But for some reason, the McIntosh withstood this harsh winter and thrived to become New England's favorite apple.


Find below, some of the most beloved of all New England apple desserts, from the very beginning..

Pandowdy, some say from pandoulde, meaning custard from a pan, was a popular New England dessert of old. The true meaning, however, comes from the fact that the top was dowdied, or cut up, after baking.

Nathaniel Hawthorne even immortalized it in his The Blithedale Romance(1852):

"Hollingsworth [would] fill my plate from the great dish of pan-dowdy."

Apple Brown Betty uses bread as a crunch topping and is yet another Yankee original. See my recipe at theyankeechef.com.

Apple Cobbler, again see theyankeechef.com, is so maligned that I fear the true preparation is lost. It should be baked with a biscuit topping, shaped to resemble a cobblestone street on top.

Apple Crisp is generally made with a crispy rolled oat topping, but is equally pleasant with a flour/sugar/butter mixture. As long as it lives up to the moniker, crisp.

Apple Grunts or Slumps is classically a steamed pudding, but now has transformed into a baked, or even stove top, dessert. As long as it lives up to the original meaning, it can be a true Grunt of Slump. The meaning? It was so named because of the grunt sound it makes when cooking or because it slumps down(reduces)when cooking.

Apple Buckle is simply fruit and a cake mix stirred together and baked. It is called Buckle because the dough seems to "buckle under", or give in to all the fruit while baking.

Apple Charlotte. A tough meaning to convey so I will simply tell you that if it isn't made with bread, it isn't a true Charlotte. See my recipe at theyankeechef.com.


 
 
And I must add one last item. Apple Jack, the original Apple Jack, not that mass produced alcohol. It was also called Jersey Lightning because during the colonial era, road crews were paid with this very hard rendition of apple cider. It was the Yankee answer to the Southerner's White Lightning, and much more potent. Hard cider was frozen in the winter time. What didn't freeze was siphoned off and put aside to freeze again. This was repeated 1 more time and what was left was as pure a homemade alcohol as you were able to make. And talk about a kick in the pants......

Monday, July 27, 2015

Chokecherries and Crabapples.....Remember?

I remember as a child here in Maine that two of my favorite wild foods to eat were those little garnet-colored chokecherries and crabapples.

It seems as though they grew everywhere and whenever we were outdoors playing, no matter where we were, we didn't have to look far to eat either of them. Heck, the natives as well as our forefathers and mothers used chokecherries from everything from pemmican(a dried concoction often eaten on long trips) to stews. Tea was even made from the bark and leaves of chokecherries, even though modern historians and scientists have proclaimed the leaves to be toxic.

Chokecherries are said to be inedible by many people who write recipes or "informative" stories about them, so it is obvious they have never TRIED them before writing their words of wisdom. Certainly they are quite tart, sour, astringent and mouth-puckering, but wasn't that the whole fun of eating them as a child?  I never know of any friend of mine growing up that ever got sick from them.



Crabapples are another one of those childhood favorites, much like the man-made Sour Patch gummy candies or the sour tasting Warheads of todays generation.
The genesis of our cultivated apple, the flower of crabapple trees are an everlasting tribute to my childhood memories and a graceful addition to many landscapes, both in the wild and at home with their twisted branches and wild look, along with their tolerance to severe New England conditions.
 
You will find many recipes using both chokecherries and crabapples but one thing to bear in mind. When using either, especially crabapples, always make sure you use apple cider or juice with them, or you will have one dish that will dry your mouth out worse than alum. And make sure you peel and cut the apples directly into the recipe. Crabapples oxidize(brown) faster than........(you fell in the rest).

 
 
Crabapple Barbecued Pulled Pork

I know. I know, crabapples are hard to find now-a-days, but I urge those of you who are able to find them, to use them here. They add a special touch that no other apple can employ. But if all else fails, find the tartest apples you can find, such as Granny Smiths, Suncrisps, Staymans, Gravensteins and Winesaps.

 

1 quart hard or regular apple cider or apple juice
1 cup ketchup
1/2 cup brown sugar
3 tablespoons molasses
1 teaspoon each onion and garlic powder
1/2 teaspoon each salt, black pepper and cinnamon
1 (2-pound) pork tenderloin
1 large onion, thinly sliced
1 1/2 cups diced crabapples *
1(6-ounce)can tomato paste
6 rolls or your choice, toasted

Whisk together first 6 ingredients and add to a crockpot along with the pork and onion. Cover and let simmer on low for 4-6 hours, or until falling apart tender. When there is an hour left, add apples. Remove pork and onions with a slotted spoon into a large bowl and shred with a fork. The apples will have reduced to little bits so leave them in liquid. Transfer this liquid from crockpot to a saucepan and bring to a boil over medium-high heat. Stir in tomato paste and continue boiling for a minute or two, or until everything is well combined and sauce has thickened slightly. Add shredded pork and onions back into sauce, mix thoroughly and scoop out to mound on prepared rolls. Serve with additional sauce if there is any.

* Or use 2 large, tart apples that have been peeled, cored, and diced.

Note: Make this recipe by braising as well, which lends a crispier texture. Simply whisk the first 6 ingredients together and pour over the pork that has been set in a high-sided pan, with a rack underneath to prevent scorching on bottom. Spread the apples and onions over the pork, cover with foil and braise 2 1/2 to 3 hours, or until very tender. Remove pork and onions, shredding pork as directed and mixing them with the pan juices. Omit the tomato paste or transfer pan juices to saucepan, whisk in the paste and bring to a boil before mixing with pork and onions.

Thursday, July 23, 2015

To Scream or Not to Scream


I must give major kudos to TVTeddy at Twitter (https://twitter.com/TVTEDDY/status/623197472245067776/photo/1) for opeing this discussion about a deplorable situation that simply didn't need to happen. Thanks for opeing up this level-headed dialogue, regardless of some of the responses I have read, again thank you Teddy  .

I have been asked repeatedly to weigh in on the viral story of Darla Neugebauer, owner of Marcy's Diner on Oak Street, Portland, Maine who was heard screaming at a 21 month old child.

I'm not going to mince words here because I feel trying to 'cave-in' to one side or the other, or both, makes my comments mute. In a nutshell, for those of you who are unaware of this story, we have a couple from New York, Tara Carson, her husband and child, go into Marcy's Diner for breakfast. The food they order is completely and utterly irrelevant to the story and will not be repeated here, although Darla uses it as an excuse for her tyrant of obscenities. Tara's wait time for her food is highly relevant however.

Owner Carla Neugebauer

During the 40-45 minute wait time for their food, their child was becoming increasingly rambunctious and even may have been irritable, as all parents are keenly aware. The child may have even started becoming disruptive, although there has not been one statement from existing customers that this was the case.

Apparently the owner herself felt the need to belittle, demean and scream obscenities at both the parents AND the child AND came over to their table, throwing down take-out containers with a few less than nice comments about Tara and her family leaving the restaurant. This can be seen at http://www.thedailymeal.com/news/eat/maine-restaurant-owner-screams-child-prompting-outrage-restaurant-owner-screams-child-horrifies/072115




I will put blame on the parents on one point, NONE on the child and the rest on the obvious(from my perspective) issues of Darla.

                                                  Tara Carson. (Photo Credit: KVUE)
If the child was, indeed, to the point of being disruptive, then the parents certainly should have realized such and taken the first step to remove themselves so that others could enjoy their culinary repose.

Now having said that, I am 'biting at the bit' to say something about the owner. I have been in many public venues where newborns, toddlers and children have been disruptive, and the first thing that I remember and tell myself is that a child is just a child. As long as the parents realize that their child is either disruptive or may become so and are acting appropriately with others in mind, then the issue is resolved. If they are not, then it is incumbent upon me to remove MYSELF from the "site of distress".

The owner felt as though, apparently, her other customers would never come back if she didn't control the situation her own way. Really? That is insane!!! I will go out of my way to never visit that diner and can safely assume others feel the same way. Now which option is common sense?

For all of you who agree that the Carla's comments and tantrum were just and appropriate, I am at a complete loss of words. That is only one step below the morality scale on how she actually handled this.

 

Here is the link to each party's response.

https://twitter.com/TVTEDDY/status/623197472245067776/photo/1



It would have been far more appropriate for Carla to have cooled down a bit, sent another employee over and brought one of the parents aside to explain that their child was causing a disturbance(if the baby actually was)and to please try to rectify it. While the staff could have done more to help the family out by possibly satiating the child(if needed)with some crackers or something or cooking the meal ahead of others but chose not to, they aggravated the situation. And don't tell me that could not have been done. I have done that hundreds of times in my career, as my father and grandfather have since 1918. It is a matter or WANTING to.

Certainly is isn't incumbent upon the staff to help, but it sure would have been a decent thing to do. But as sad as it is nowadays, people would rather allow drama in their lives than to try and prevent it.

Bottom line. We cannot, nor should we even try, to legislate morality. There will always be that one sour apple in the bunch and we need to learn to live with it. Although the owners actions were unforeseeable and inexcusable, it would have been wise to remove yourself from a situation that is easily inflated, especially in todays "me me me" world.

But what supersedes that thought is the entirely demeaning way in which the owner tried to solve the problem. As mentioned, the parents could have been dealt with on the side or in a much more dignified manner to begin with, ONLY if there was a true issue.

It looks as though the owner has either an anger issue or something emotional is off kilter because anyone who swears or screams at a child, any child, knows that a child cannot defend him or herself. So in their mind, they won the fight. They feel so ill of themselves that they take it out on others and try to bring others to their level or attempt to make themselves look better in the eyes of those around them. Hmmm........I am sure psychologists and psychiatrists have a word for that.

Certainly there is nothing illegal about this episode and we should not try to bring anything into this that doesn't belong. It is purely and simply a moral issue and a life lesson. There will always be idiots among us.


Now if I have missed something here, than certainly I will alter my opinion because parents should act as such and not make their child out to be any more special than anyone else. As more comes out, than I will change my opinion but I still think there are other ways of dealing with this than hollering out obscenities at a child, IF she indeed did do that.


To Carla personally.

One of the first lessons we learn as a cook, or even a restaurant owner, is how to deal with patrons, regardless of the issue. Cooks, especially, need to keep their psych on an even keel, not act in a demeanor that is perceived as psychotic. If you had a child that was screamed at in the manner you did, how would you feel? Would you sit back and take it?

Show your employees restraint and compassion. It is a shame we even need to teach this, but because some bosses choose NOT to set a precedent to their staff, we need to. Shameful.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Continuing with Early New England Settlers, 1600-1700


A 1702 map of New England, courtesy of old-maps.comold-maps.com




Bolton or Boulton

Nicholas was at Dorcehster, Mass. in 1643

William was married at Newbury, Mass. in 1655

 
Boltwood

Robert was living in Hartford, Conn. in 1648 then removed to Hadley, Mass. in 1659

 
Bond

Grinstone was living in Boston as early as 1685.

John was at Newbury, Mass. in 1642, then to Rowley, Mass. by 1660, ending in Haverhill, Mass. after that date.

Nicholas was at York, Maine in 1652, removing to Hampton, N.H. afterwards.

William, son of Thomas and grandson of James Bond of Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, England came in the Winthrops fleet in 1630 and settled at Watertown, Mass. by 1649.

 
Bondfield or Bonfield

George was at Marblehead, Mass. by 1676.

 
Bonham or Bonum

George was at Plymouth, Mass. in 1644.

Nicholas, who was the brother of George, was at Barnstable, Mass. in 1659.

 
Bonner

John was living in Boston by 1678, removing to Cambridge, Mass in the 1680s. He took his children and returned to England in 1697.

 
Bonney

Thomas came to Charlestown, Mass, from Sandwich, Kent, England, in 1635 and by 1645, he was one of the proprietors of Bridgewater, Mass. by 1645, removing to Duxbury, Mass. after.

 
Bonython or Bonighton

Richard was a captain and magistrate at Saco, Maine in 1636.

 
Boobyar

Joseph was at Marblehead, Mass. in 1668.

 
Boomer

Mathew was at Newport, R.I. by 1655.

 
Boodey

Zachariah was born in France in 1677 and came to Boston by 1695.

 
Boosy

James was at Wethersfield, Conn. in 1635.

 
Bootfish or Bodfish

Robert was a freeman at Lynn, Mass. by 1635, removing to Sandwich, Mass. in 1637 and ending at Barnstable, Mass.

 
Booth

George was living at Lynn, Mass. in 1674.

Humphrey was a resident of Charletstown, Mass, in the mid-1600s.

John was at Scituate, Mass. in 1655.

Richard, son of Richard, was the 14th generation from Sir William de Boothe(s/o Adam de Boothe and resided in Lancaster, England in 1275)was born in 1607 and was at Stratford, Conn. in 1640.

Robert was at Exeter, N.H. in 1645 and removed to Saco, Maine in 1653.

 
Borden

Bryant was at Malden, Mass. pre-1690.

John, came from Kent, England to New England in 1635, went to Stonington, Conn. by 1650 and then to Lyme, Conn. by 1660.

Richard, Quaker and s/o Matthew and 9th genertion from Henry(Henry was of Hedcorn, Kent, England, 1379-1380)came to Boston in 1635 and was one of the founders of Portsmouth, R.I. in 1637.

 
Bordman, Boardman or Boreman

Daniel was at Ipswich, Mass. in 1662

Samuel was at Ipswich, Mass. in 1639 then removed to Wethersfield, Mass.

Thomas, brother of Daniel, was at Lynn, Mass. in 1637, removed to Sandwich, Mass and was one of the first purchasers of Middleboro, Mass..

Thomas was at Ipswich, Mass. in 1635, removed to Barnstable, Mass. pre-1645.

William was at Wethersfield, Conn. in 1645, then to Guilford, Conn. by 1650.


Borel

Samuel was at Boston, Mass. in 1691.

 
Borland

Francis was at Boston in 1684.


Bosson

William was at Salem, Mass. in 1630, then to Watertown, Mass. in 1636 and was the proprietor at Wethersfield, Conn..

 
Bostwick

Arthur was one of the first seventeen settlers at Stratford, Conn. in 1641.

 
Boswell

Samuel was at Bradford, Mass. in 1663, removing to Rowley, Mass. by 1671.

 
Bosworth

Edward died on his voyage to New England in 1634 but left 4 sons-Edward, Jonathan, Benjamin and Nathaniel.

Hanniel(?), was at Ipswich, Mass. in 1648, removed to Haverhill, Mass in 1674.

Zaccheus or Zecheriah was at Boston in 1630.

 
Botham

Robert was at Ipswich, Mass. by 1652.

 
Botsford

Henry was at Milford, Conn. in 1639.


Boulter

Matthew at Hampton, N.H. in 1649.

Nathaniel, brother of Matthew, was at Hampton, N.H. in 1649.

Thomas at at Weymouth, Mass. in 1661 and was one of the proprietors of Mendon, Mass. by 1660.

 
Bound

William was at Salem, Mass. in 1637.


Bourne

Garret or Jared was at Boston in 1630 then to Brookline, Mass..

Henry came to Plymouth, or Scituate, Mass. in 1634, the to Barnstable, Mass. by 1639.

Nehemiah was at Charlet\stown, Mass. in 1638 and was at Dorchester, Mass. and then to Boston by 1640.

Richard was in Lynn, Mass. by 1637 and was an early settler of Sandwich, Mass.

Thomas was at Plymouth, Mass. by 1637 and was an early settler at Marshfield, Mass..

 
Boutell or Boutwell

Henry was at New Haven, Conn. pre-1657, when he was married at Cambridge, Mass. He died soon after, leaving no issue.

James was at Salem and Lynn, Mass. around 1635.

John, brother of James, was at Cambridge, Mass. pre-1646.

 
Boutineau

Stephen came from La Rochelle, France in 1686 to Casco, Maine and then went to Boston.

 
Bouton

John was the son of Count Nicholas Bouton of France and came to Boston in 1635. He lived at Watertown, Mass. after, went to Hartford, Conn. and in 1651, John was living at Norwalk, Conn.


Bowditch

John was at Boston in 1682.

William was at Salem, Mass. by 1639.

 
Bowdoin or Baudoin

Michael was at Lynn, Mass. by 1690.

Pierre arrived at Casco Bay, Maine by 1688 and then removed to Boston in 1690.

 
Bowe

Alexander was at Charlestown, Mass pre-1678, when he removed to Middletown, Conn., where he died the same year.

Nicholas was married at Cambridge, Mass. in 1684.

 
Bowen

Griffith was at Boston in 1638, then to Roxbury, Mass for a few years before returning to London, where he is found to be a merchant by 1670.

Henry was at Boston in 1657.

Obadiah was at Rehoboth, Mass. pre-1657 when he is found to have moved to Swanzey, Mass..

Richard, borther of Obadiah, was at Rehoboth, Mass. in 1645 and was at New London, Conn. between 1657-1660.

Thomas, brother of Richard, was at Salem, Mass. in 1648, New London, Conn. between 1657-1660 and then to Rehoboth, Mass. after.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

A Cake with a Crust

Lets talk coconut flour for a moment. Many people opt for coconut flour because they are on a certain restrictive diet that prevents them from ingesting gluten. Fortunately, there is such a wide range of substitutions available, and easily attainable, it is getting easier and much more enjoyable for those of you seeking just such a change. But there is a downside of using any wheat substitution in desserts, and baking in particular. Dryness, reduced structural integrity and other substantive faults. That is why when using any gluten-free flours, you shouldn't use a complete replacement in many recipes, especially baked goods......until now!

I wanted to create a recipe, again, that used gluten-free flour in a cake but not diminish any negative aspects of a complete substitution, yet added SOMETHING to the overall taste. And I succeeded. Not only succeeded, but excelled. This cake would not be the same if I had used any other type of gluten-free flour because you can actually taste the coconut flavor in this flour. What is coconut flour?


nuts.com

Simply put, it is the last remnants of the coconut meat after the milk has been extracted from it. This is dried and ground to a fine powder that has almost supernatural absorption powers. Honestly, this stuff will soak in almost twice the amount of liquid than any other flour. There are pros and cons to this. The pro portion is that coconut flour makes a superb coating for fish or chicken when grilled or fried. The downside of using this flour is that many professional chefs and bakers double the amount of liquid in any given recipe it is used in, especially eggs. And the addition of extra eggs doesn't sit very well with many people, including yours truly.

I have found although, for example, if a cake recipe uses 2 eggs and any wheat flour, by substituting a 1/2-cup coconut flour, you don't need to add that extra egg. Use 1/4 cup buttermilk instead. This works out perfectly without adding even more cholesterol to your diet.

I have only given you the tip of the iceberg with regards to coconut flour. I highly suggest you take a peak here and find out more about this super versatile and ultra tasty flour. By the way, while you are there, take a looksy at their dried fruits and nuts. I placed my order this morning for some candied and dried goodies and I think once you spy the chocolate, you will be ordering to from nuts.com, New England's best and most informative website that indulges, yet cares. A perfect combination that defines us Yankees. Am I being compensated for this post? No! Am I touting yet another great New England company? Oh yeah! And by the way, all the links I have added are completely safe. Just a great way to say hi to a neighbor.


It's Just That Simple!™

 

 

Italian-Yankee Corn Cake
(And it's gluten-free!*)

This perfectly sweetened cake creates its own type of crust around the edges that crisp up as it cools, transforming it into a toss between a cake and a pie actually. It is recommended to slice it into segments before refrigerating, otherwise the caramelized crust will be next to impossible to cut. Classical Italian Corn Cake uses almond extract, but vanilla works equally as well if desired.



 
Nonstick cooking spray
Crisp Topping:
1/4 cup brown sugar
1 tablespoon butter or margarine, melted
2 tablespoons coconut flour 1 teaspoon almond extract
2 cups small dice apple
2 tablespoons orange juice
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon grated lemon zest
3/4 cup cornmeal
3/4 cup coconut flour
1/2 cup sugar
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup milk
2 eggs, beaten
Juice from 1 lemon
3 tablespoons butter or margarine, melted
1/2 cup raisins or dried cranberries

 

Grease a 9-inch cake pan with nonstick cooking spray; set aside. Mix topping ingredients together until thoroughly combined; set aside. In a bowl, combine diced apple, orange juice and cinnamon; set aside. Preheat oven to 350-degrees F. In a medium-sized bowl, blend cornmeal, coconut flour, sugar and baking powder until well blended. Stir in the milk, eggs, lemon juice and melted butter. It should be mixed just enough to wet all ingredients, leaving it somewhat lumpy. Fold in the raisins and transfer to prepared pan, leveling out the top. Evenly divide apple mixture, juice and all, on top of batter. Sprinkle topping mixture evenly over the apples and bake 36-38 minutes, or until the center of the cake is firm. Immediately remove from oven to cool slightly before serving hot, or cover and refrigerate to serve cold.

* But as I say with all gluten-free recipes and products, always ALAYS check the label.

 

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

STOP ALREADY!!!

 
 
I have had it right up to about here(do you see where I am holding my hand?)with adding salt at every single turn in the kitchen. I guess it hit a peak when I saw Chef Ramsay get extremely upset with someone for NOT adding salt and pepper to a lobster roll. Not only is there absolutely no need to season Maine or East Coast lobster when making a lobster roll, but it simply doesn't belong!
Maybe Rock lobster needs seasoning so you can taste it, but certainly not ours in the Northeast.


Another pet peeve I have is almost all cake, pie and a myriad other sweet treats have you adding salt. Not only does it accomplish zero in the way of taste, in cakes for example, but it is not needed! Chefs worldwide will tell you that adding salt helps to bring out the taste of whatever flavor cake you are making, even plain vanilla. If you want a more pronounced vanilla taste, ADD MORE VANILLA PEOPLE!.

We consume far too much salt without even knowing it today and by overlooking added salt where it simply is not needed, helps us control our health. You may not think a half teaspoon salt added to a recipe would make all that much difference, but consider this. Our daily allowance of salt is bout a teaspoon a day. By NOT adding extra salt when we don't need it, we will STILL absorb our daily allowance in other foods, even in soft drinks, candy, chocolate................not to mention processed foods.

Now I can hear a lot of you hollering at me "Now Jim, you add salt to some fruited pies!" My answer is rather simple. There are some instances where salt is needed, but I dare say that over 90% of all my fruited desserts are salt free. If you can't enjoy what nature has to offer, without raising your blood pressure.......well, I don't know what else to say.

This whole salt issue actually started when I noticed another well known television chef salting all heck out of fish before he dunked it into a batter to fry for an English Fish and Chip. Chef Irvine then set the batter-fried fish on a plate and can you guess what he did next?

Yup, he salted it AGAIN!!! And this doesn't even include the salt that is in the fish batter. My goodness everyone............STOP ALREADY!

All you need to do and stop and think. Do you REALLY need that salt in the recipe? You will be surprised at how many times the answer will be NO.

 
It's Just That Simple!

Sunday, May 31, 2015

Summer Sprouts

Yup. It's that time of year where we start thinking that we really shouldn't have had that extra slice of cake, that additional helping of lasagna or stuffed ourselves during the Holidays. But then again, it may have well been worth it. But for those of you who DO have that guilty conscience, this post is right up your alley.
For those of you who are lucky enough to have a high metabolism, try these recipes just because they are delicious, great for you and simply a great side to anything you have grilling this summer.

Summer Picnic 'Salad' 

A light meal that fits that "feel-good" category of recipes. And as for the Apple Vinaigrette? Let's just say this will be the last vinaigrette recipe you will make. Beautifully tart and reminiscent of that ol' Yankee charm, it is a keeper.



Apple Vinaigrette Dressing:

1/2 cup frozen apple juice concentrate, thawed
1/3 cup water
3 tablespoons apple cider vinegar
1 tablespoon honey
2 teaspoons lemon juice
1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
Salt and black pepper to taste
"Salad":
1(7-ounce)bag bean sprouts(4 cups)
1 teaspoon minced garlic in oil
1/2 teaspoon chili powder
1 cup whole kernel corn
1 apple, peeled, cored and diced
1/4 cup diced water chestnuts

Begin by adding apple juice, water, vinegar, honey and lemon juice to the bowl of a food processor or blender. Pulse on high for 10 seconds and keep it running. Slowly add the olive oil to the dressing until all ingredients are emulsified well; set aside.
Get 1 quart of water boiling over high heat. Gently add the bean sprouts and boil, stirring once, for 2 minutes. Strain well and transfer to a bowl; let cool to room temperature. When ready to serve, toss with garlic, chili powder, corn, apple, water chestnuts and Apple Vinaigrette Dressing.

Enough for 4 servings



Sautéed, Saucy Sprouts
 

This is one recipe you will eat all by itself. Loaded with protein, without added fat, it is one of those feel good meals. For an even higher boost of protein, without fat, add some cubed tofu. For those of you who want a little "meat with your potatoes", so to speak. add some chicken or beef cut up small while sautéing onions and garlic.

3/4 cup vegetable broth
1/3 cup soy sauce
1/4 cup apple cider vinegar
2 tablespoons brown sugar
1 tablespoon sesame oil
2 tablespoons canola or peanut oil
1/4 cup minced onion
1 teaspoon minced garlic in oil
2 cups(8-ounces) sliced mushrooms
1 cup frozen lima beans, thawed
1(7-ounce)bag bean sprouts(about 4 cups)

 

Whisk together vegetable broth, soy sauce, vinegar, brown sugar and sesame oil in a bowl; set aside. In a large skillet, over medium-high heat, add canola oil until it is shimmering hot. Add the onions and garlic and stir-fry for 1-2 minutes, or just until the garlic is becoming fragrant. Add mushrooms and lima beans. Stir fry for 4-5 minutes, or until the mushrooms are tender. Add broth mixture and bring to a boil. Stir in the bean sprouts and continue cooking and stirring for 2 additional minutes. Remove from heat to serve immediately.

Asian Shrimp Omelets
 

Every once in a while, I make breakfast for lunch or supper, never giving any thought to an alternative that is considered both in the 'other East'. Asian-style omelets are eaten throughout the day and after a few bites, you will see why.


 
3-5 tablespoons oil, divided
3 green onions, sliced thin
1 rib celery, minced
2 ounces(about a cup) mushrooms, minced
1 cup vegetable or chicken broth
1 tablespoon cornstarch
1 teaspoon brown sugar
2 tablespoons soy sauce
8 eggs, beaten well
1/2 teaspoon each salt, black pepper and chili powder
8 ounces beans sprouts, chopped
8 ounces Maine or salad shrimp, chopped

Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a small skillet. Add celery and onions, cooking until the celery is softened, about 3 minutes, stirring occasionally. Add the mushrooms and cook until soft, about another minute. Remove from heat, drain and set aside.

In a small saucepan, whisk together broth, cornstarch, sugar and soy sauce and cook over medium heat until it boils and thickens, about 4-6 minutes. Set aside, covered, to keep warm.

In a large bowl, stir together eggs, spices, bean sprouts, shrimp, celery and mushrooms. Add a half tablespoon oil to a skillet over medium heat until hot. Pour in 1/4-1/2-cup measures of omelet batter to skillet and cook until browned on both sides, about 2-3 minutes per side. Transfer to plate and continue until all omelets have been made. Pour soy mixture over the top and serve immediately.

Enough for 4 people